Pinal County At-A-Glance County Seat: Florence 2022 Population: 453,924 2023 Labor Force: 202,783 Unemployment Rate: 3.4% Major Industries: Public Administration, Retail Trade, Manufacturing, Accommodation, and Food Services
Pinal County was formed from portions of Maricopa and Pima counties on February 1, 1875, in response to the petition of residents of the upper Gila River Valley, as "Act Number 1" of the Eighth Territorial Legislature. Florence, established in 1866, was designated and has remained the county seat.
The county encompasses 5,374 square miles, of which 4.5 are water. In both economy and geography, Pinal County has two distinct regions. The eastern portion is characterized by mountains with elevations of 6,000 feet, and its economy is driven by copper mining. The communities of Mammoth, Oracle, San Manuel, and Kearny have traditionally been active in copper mining, smelting, milling, and refining. The western area is primarily low desert valleys and irrigated agriculture. Arizona City, Eloy, Maricopa, Picacho, Red Rock, and Stanfield have agriculture based-economies. Apache Junction, Arizona City, Coolidge, Eloy, and particularly Casa Grande have diversified their economic base to include manufacturing, trade, and services.
The state of Arizona is the county's largest landholder with 35%, followed by individuals and corporations, 22%; Indian reservations, 23%; the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, 14%, and the remaining 6% is another public land.